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Sphinx (from the Greek Σφίγξ) is the Hellenized name of a fabulous being that is usually represented, generally, like a recumbent lion with a human head. The sphinxes were devised by the ancient Egyptians and are part of their complex mythology; They also have cultural relevance in the mythology of the ancient Greeks.

The sphinxes were a symbol of royalty, as they represented the strength and power of the lion, and life after death, which is why they appear in many relief tombs. During the New Kingdom, some gods were represented as sphinxes, like Amun.

The largest and one of the oldest sculptural representations is the Great Sphinx found in Giza. In the last periods, it was usual to place sphinxes on both sides of the avenues that led to the temples. Between the precincts of the temple of Ammon in Karnak and that of Amun in Luxor, there is a processional avenue (dromos) several kilometers long flanked by hundreds of sphinxes with heads of rams or humans.

The Egyptian sphinx has been changing throughout history, changing its appearance according to the cultural trends of the moment, even some with feminine aspect.